By Kevin M. Miller, MD
Provides present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical issues with regards to foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs, and refractive surgical procedure and the layout, becoming, and issues of touch lenses. additionally lined are optics of the human eye, the layout and use of ophthalmic tools, simple recommendations of geometrical optics and the present method of low imaginative and prescient administration and imaginative and prescient rehabilitation.
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Extra info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
Redrawn by Jonathan CHAPTER 2 Geometrical Optics Geometrical optics deals primarily with imaging: how to produce images using light and how to manipulate image features such as size, brightness, and location. As its name implies, geometrical optics can be understood largely in terms of geometrical principles. In contrast, physical optics emphasizes the wave nature of light, and quantum optics (not covered in this text) emphasizes the particle nature of light and the interaction of light and matter.
Image Ouality Careful examination reveals that some details in an object are not reproduced in the image. Images are imperfect facsimiles, not exact scaled duplicates of the original object. Fundamentally, detail is lost because object points are imaged as diffuse spots rather than as perfect points. Consider an object 50 em in front of a pinhole 1 mm in diameter. Paper is placed 50 em behind the pinhole, so the magnification is -1. A small pencil of rays from each object point traverses the aperture (Fig 2-15).
Illustration developed by Edmond H. Thall, MO, and Kevin M. Miller. MO, and rendered by C. H. ) Smooth optical interface Figure 2-20 Light striking a smooth optical interface is specularly reflected and specularly transmitted. (Illustration MO, developed and Kevin M. Miller. by Edmond MO, H. and rendered Thall, Specularly transmitted ray by C. H. ) Specularly reflected ray rough optical interfaces (Fig 2-21). If a pencil of light is stopped down to a single ray, it is reflected and transmitted specularly by a rough interface.