By Robert H. Rosa Jr., MD
This quantity is split into components: half I, Ophthalmic Pathology; and half II, Intraocular Tumors: scientific elements. half I makes use of a hierarchy that strikes from normal to express to aid derive a differential prognosis for a selected tissue. half II is a compilation of chosen medical features of value to the final ophthalmologist. Following half II are the yank Joint Committee on melanoma 2010 staging kinds for ocular and adnexal tumors. This revised textual content comprises a number of new pathologic and scientific pictures. significant revision 2011-2012.
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Extra resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 4: Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The procedure is performed under direct visualization through a dilated pupil. Iris tumors may be accessible for FNAB duri ng slit-lamp biomicroscopy. However. FNAB alone cannot reliably predict the prognosis of a uveal melanoma because the sample with intraocular FNAB is limited. Intraocular FNA B may also enable tumor cells to escape the eye; this possibility is an area of some controversy. In general. prope rly performed. FNAB does not pose a significant risk for seeding a tumOf. but retinoblastoma is a notable exception.
These DNA microarrays we re developed as a flexi ble tool capable of reliably quantifying the expression of a limited nu mber of genes of clinical relevance, but DualChip technology has also been applied to tumor diag nosis and tumo r-acqui red drug resistance. Validation of the results of microa rray expe riments is a critical step in the analysis of gene expression . Quantitative real- time PCR is the method of choice for validation of ge ne expression profili ng. 42 • Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocu lar Tumors ) Figure 4·6 Tissue microarrays are constructed w ith small core biopsi es of differe nt t umors/ tissues.
Uses epifluoresce nce and quantitative, reg ional diffe ren ces in th e fl uorescence ratio of ga ins/ losses v s contro l DNA to identify abn orm al region s in the ge nome at a resol ution of 20-80 base pai rs Differe nti all y labe led test and reference DNAs, hybridized to cloned fragments, genomic DNA o r cDNA, w hich are spotted on a g lass sl ide (t he array). Th e DNA copy nu m ber aberrat ions me asured by detect ing intensi ty d iffe rence s in the hybridi za tion pattern s Direct detectio n of PC R-product formation by meas uring t he increase in fl uorescent emi ssion contin uou sly durin g the PCR reacti on 1.