By Edward L. Raab, MD, JD
Examines the medical beneficial properties, prognosis and remedy of esodeviations and exodeviations, horizontal and vertical deviations, amblyopia and specific kinds of strabismus. Discusses the complete variety of pediatric ocular issues, extraocular muscle anatomy, motor and sensory body structure and the way to set up rapport with young children in the course of an ocular exam. comprises a variety of pictures, together with colour photographs. lately revised 2010 2011.
Read Online or Download 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 6: Pediatric Ophthalomology and Strabismus (Basic & Clinical Science Course) PDF
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 6: Pediatric Ophthalomology and Strabismus (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Monoc ul ar clues contr ibute to depth perception. These monoc ular clues include object overlap, relative object size, hi ghlights and shadows, motion parallax, and perspective. Stereopsis is a binocular sensation of relative depth caused by hori zontal retinal image di sparity. Nasal disparity between 2 similar retin al im ages is interpreted by the brain as far th er away from the fi xatio n point, te mpo ral dispari ty as nearer. At d istances fa rth er th an 20 ft, we rely almost entirely on monocu lar clues for depth percepti on.
The most useful application of this law is in eva lu ating binocular eye movements and. in particular, the yoke muscles involved. Hering's law has important clinical implications. especially when the practitioner is dealing w ith a paralytic o r restrictive strabis lllus. Because the amolln t of innervation to both eyes is always determined by the fixating eye, the ang le of deviation varies acco rding to which eye is fixating. When the normal eye is fixating, the amount of misalignment is called the primary deviation.
Anteriorly, the sleeves thi n to for m slings between the rectus muscles (the intermuscular septum ), which fuse with the conjunctiva 3 mm posterior to the li mbus. The posterior section of th e intermuscula r septum separates the intraconal fat pads from the extraconaJ fat pads. Numerous extensions from all of the extraocu lar muscle sheaths attach to the orbit and help support the globe. T he inferior oblique muscle originates anterio rl y from the inferonasal orbital rim ad jacent to the anterior lac rimal crest, continuing latera ll y to enter its co nn ective tissue pul le y inferior to the inferior rec tus at a site where th e inferior oblique penetrates the Tenon capsule.