By Jennifer I. Lim
This reference showcases exudative and nonexudative AMD therapy concepts utilizing argon and diode lasers, submacular and macular translocation surgical procedure, photodynamic treatment, radiation, feeder vessel therapy, thermotherapy, and antiangiogenesis medications. together with a hundred and sixty colour illustrations, Age-Related Macular Degeneration will gain scientific ophthalmologists, pathologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists; optometrists; phone and molecular biologists and biochemists; retinal experts; AMD researchers; and graduate and clinical university scholars in those disciplines.
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Extra resources for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Additional information derives from the availability of subretinal neovascular membranes removed by a variety of increasingly popular subretinal surgery techniques (1). AMD is currently well characterized at both the light microscopic and the electron microscopic level. The histopathological hallmark of early, nonexudative AMD is the occurrence of drusen, as well as basal deposits along the basement membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, with degeneration of the overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cells.
Different stimuli often trigger the same stereotyped program. Thus, the receptors of innate immunity are identical among all individuals within a species in the same way that receptors for neurotransmitters or hormones are genetically identical within a species. The classic example of the innate immune response is the immune response to acute infection (7). For example, in endophthalmitis, bacterial-derived toxins or host cell debris stimulates the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes, leading to the production of inflammatory mediators and phagocytosis of the bacteria.
Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109:1242–1257. 24. Lee BL, Lim JI, Grossniklaus HE. Clinicopathologic features of indocyanine green angiography-imaged, surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes. Retina 1996;16:64–69 3 Immunology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Scott W. Cousins Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida Karl G. Csaky National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland I. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, immune and inflammatory mechanisms of disease pathogenesis were applied only to disorders characterized by acute onset and progression associated with obvious clinical signs of inflammation.